There are a number of sites that explore this deep topic. Of course one with the most detail is this site from Wikipedia. This gets into lots of history. Another is a site that lists 41 very impressive modern designs.
Then there is a cool site that delves into church design, acoustics, biblical history, and has great write-ups from 5 or 6 members that put the site together. Very well done.
All in all you will get a great deal of information from these sites.